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Bénin : la Cour africaine ordonne l’abrogation des dispositions permettant à Patrice Talon de présider au Conseil supérieur de la magistrature

La Cour Africaine a ordonné au Bénin d’abroger toutes les dispositions permettant au président de la République, Patrice Talon, de siéger, de présider et de nommer les membres du Conseil supérieur de la magistrature (CSM). C’est dans un arrêt rendu, le jeudi 1er décembre 2022, à la suite d’une saisine par le citoyen béninois, Eric Noudéhouenou Hounguè.

Le président béninois Patrice Talon.

Le président béninois Patrice Talon.

La juridiction d’Arusha tranche une affaire liée au Conseil supérieur de la magistrature au Bénin. La Cour africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples a rendu le jeudi 1er décembre 2022 un arrêt dans l’affaire opposant Éric Noudéhouénou Hounguè et la République du Bénin. C’est à la suite d’une requête introduite le jeudi 17 septembre 2020 par ce dernier.

 

Le Requérant avait en effet saisi la Cour pour contester plusieurs lois votées dont la loi n°2018-02 du 02 juillet 2018 modifiant et complétant la loi organique n°94-027 du 18 mars 1999 relative au Conseil supérieur de la magistrature. Il conteste également la loi n°2018-16 du 04 janvier 2018 portant statut de la magistrature et la loi n°2019-40 du 07 novembre 2019 portant révision de la Constitution du 11 décembre 1990 au Bénin.

 

Les violations alléguées par le requérant

 

Devant la Cour africaine, Eric Noudéhouenou Hounguè a affirmé que la promulgation de ces lois au Bénin viole le droit à l’indépendance de la justice, le droit de grève des magistrats et par conséquent la violation de leur droit à l’information. Selon ce dernier, ces lois violent la liberté d’opinion et d’expression ainsi que le droit des magistrats de constituer librement des associations, et leur droit à la liberté de réunion.

 

LIRE AUSSI : Reckya Madougou : le Bénin contraint de respecter la décision de l'ONU selon l’un de ses avocats

 

Le Requérant a fait valoir une immixtion massive du pouvoir exécutif dans la composition du Conseil supérieur de la magistrature. Il explique qu’il résulte de l’article 1 (nouveau) de la loi du 02 juillet 2018 relative au CSM que celui-ci est majoritairement composé des membres du pouvoir exécutif, notamment, le président de la République qui en est le président, le ministre de la Justice, le ministre de l’Économie et des Finances, le ministre de la Fonction publique. Il ajoute que le président à une voix prépondérante. Le requérant affirme, d’autre part, que l’État défendeur viole le droit des magistrats en ne leur accordant aucun recours contre les décisions rendues à leur encontre par le CSM.

 

La Cour ordonne l’abrogation de ces dispositions

 

Dans son verdict, la Cour africaine a examiné la loi organique relative au Conseil supérieur de la magistrature au Bénin.  Elle affirme avoir constaté que la procédure de nomination et la composition du CSM reflètent un déséquilibre au profit du pouvoir exécutif et que, dès lors, les conditions d’indépendance du CSM ne sont pas réunies. La Cour a conclu que l’État défendeur a violé l’article 26 de la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples. Cet article dispose que les États partie de cette charte ont le devoir, entre autres, de garantir l’indépendance des tribunaux.

 

La juridiction d’Arusha a donc ordonné à l’État béninois de prendre, dans un délai de six (6) mois à compter de la signification de l’arrêt, toutes les mesures afin de rendre l’organisation statutaire et fonctionnelle du CSM, conforme à l’article 26 de la Charte, d’une part. Elle a demandé également au Bénin d’abroger les dispositions suivantes de la loi organique relative au CSM :  “celles en vertu desquelles le président de la République est membre du CSM et président du CSM, celles en vertu desquelles le président de la République nomme des membres du CSM et celles en vertus desquelles d’autres membres de l’exécutif sont membres du CSM, et d’autre part, en faisant en sorte que la présidence du CSM soit dévolue au Président de la Cour suprême”.

 

LIRE AUSSI : Bénin : Patrice Talon met en place une plateforme et un numéro vert pour dénoncer les actes de corruption

 

Le citoyen béninois Eric Noudéhouenou Hounguè, a saisi la Cour africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, CADHP le 17 septembre 2020. Cette saisine a été faite avant l’entrée en vigueur du retrait du Bénin du protocole instituant la Cour africaine. Le Bénin avait déjà retiré le jeudi 23 avril 2020 sa déclaration au protocole instituant la Cour africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples (CADHP). Avec ce retrait du Bénin, les citoyens et les organisations de la société civile du Bénin n’ont plus la possibilité de saisir directement la Cour en cas de violation de leurs droits. Ce retrait du Bénin est entré en vigueur un an après son annonce, soit le vendredi 23 avril 2021. 
 

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21-04-23 à 02:47

Agbo jean

Ok

13-12-22 à 10:07

GNEGNON Nounagnon Katoude Alexandre

je suis intéressé par la page

09-12-22 à 02:52

GNEGNON Nounagnon Katoude Alexandre

je suis intéressé par la page

09-12-22 à 02:52

Elisée CHAM

Attention ! La constitution fut modifier par la loi n°2019-40 du 07 NOVEMBRE et non JUILLET. Merci !

09-12-22 à 12:42

Elisée CHAM

Attention ! La constitution fut modifier par la loi n°2019-40 du 07 NOVEMBRE et non JUILLET. Merci !

09-12-22 à 12:42

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